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Full text of "First Centennial of the Anglican Church in the County of Essex : With special reference to the history and work of St. John's Church, Sandwich"

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FIRST CENTENNIAL 



OF THE 



Anglican Ch urch 



IN THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ThE HISTORY AND WORK 
Or ST. cJOHN'S CHURCH. SANDWICH. 



Judge Woods 



1903. 




2^«^-3=> 



^ \ S- Jc^^^- 




o3 




Rev. D. H. HIND, 
The piesent Rector of St. John's, Sandwich. 







INDIAN COUNCIL HOUSE, 
Where services of Church of England held 1S24 to 1828, and on occasions 
p' ior to that time by Rev. Mr. Pollard. See bronze tablet on Water 
Works Rldg., corner Jefferson Ave. and learned, now occupying site of 
Council House. 




tJOUQLAS 
LifcRARy 



queeN's UNiveRsiT? 

AT kiNQSCON 
Presented bu 

Mr. &. Mrs. John C. Bonham, 
Sills ville, Ont. 

kiNQSTON U ONYARio CANADA 




ST. PAUI/S CHURCH, 

1828 to 1 851. 
Woodward Avenue, near Congress Street. Removed in April, 1852. 




tJOUQLAS 
LlbRARy 



queeN's UNiveRSiT? 

AT kiNQSXTON 

JMr. £ Mrs. John C. Bonham, 
Sillsville, Ont. 
June, 1967 
kiNQSTON ONTARiO CANADA 




INSCRIPTION MEMORIAL WINDOW, CHANCER ST. PA.UI/S CHURCH, DETROIT. 

" I have fought a good fight." 

Richard Pollard, First Missionary, 1804. 




THE RIGHT REVEREND THOMAS EAREE WEEBY 
Bishop of St. Helena. 



FIRST CENTENNIAL 



OF THE 



Anglican Church 



IN THE 



COUNTY OF ESSEX, 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE HISTORY AND WORK 
Or ST. (JOHN'S CHURCH, SANDWICH. 



-BY- 



Judge Woods 



A Century of the Anglican 

Church in the County 

of Essex, 



God, we have heard with our ears and our fathers have declar- 
ed unto us the noble works that Thou didst in their days and in the 
old time before them. O Lord arise, help us and deliver us for 
thine honor. 

Your worthy rector the Rev. Mr. Hind, having done me the honor 
to ask me to prepare a sketch of St. John's church on the occasion of 
its Centennial Anniversary, I have with great diffidence acceded to 
his kind wish. 

Baptized and confirmed in it, and having grandfather, father, 
brothers and sister buried in its churchyard, and having attended it 
till sixteen years of age and again later, up to 1850, I have at least an 
early acquaintance with it, and a profound interest in it, and I need 
hardly say that one's heart is made sad by a retrospect like this — so 
full of tender association and affectionate remembrance. 

The review of four-score years and more of the home church and 
friends beloved, no longer nigh, is well calculated to awaken the 
tenderest of memories and the saddest of thoughts. 

1 esteem it a great honor and privilege that I should have receiv- 
ed this invitation, for it gives me the opportunity to make, as I desire 
to do, the confession of my profound faith in the great truths of our 
church and of God's Holy Word, and to say in all humility, I am 
what I am through His Grace. 

When good Bishop Berridge saw a poor wretch being dragged up- 
on the hurdle to the place of execution, he said, "John Berridge but 
for the Grace of God." 

I am sure it is the wish of all here present to unite in an offering 
of praise and gratitude to our Heavenly Father for the great mercies 
vouchsafed to us through this long centennial period alike as a church, 
a community and country ; and that as our residence here began by 
leaving as British bubjects what is now the territory of the United 
States to continue under the protection of the British flag and the 
liberties and laws of England, of which we are in the fullest enjoy- 
ment — widened and deepened by a Canadian freedom — we have great 
reason for congratulation and both private and public thanksgiving. 
Born as it was at a period of great political, social and national dis- 
turbance, when old things had passed away, and a new home and life 
entered upon, we shall encounter many strange experiences and find 
ourselves open to much congratulation on the present condition of 
both Church and State. 



HISTORICAL. 

By the fall of Quebec under Wolfe on the 13th of September 1759, 
the capitulation of Montreal on the 3rd of September 1760, under 
General Amherst, and the surrender of Detroit to Major Roberts, of 
the Queen's Rangers, on the 8th of September, 1760, we came into 
full possession of Canada. This was in addition to our possession of 
the thirteen colonies, now the United States, for we did not lose them 
till the treaty of 1783, after eight years of war. 

In 1774 the British parliament passed the "Quebec Act," by 
which the entire British possessions west of New York, north of the 
Ohio and east of the Mississippi, -were incorporated into the Province 
of Quebec 

By Proclamation issued from the Castle of St. Louis in the City of 
Quebec, by Lord Dorchester, on the 24th of July, 1788, the District of 
Hesse was set apart as one of the five Districts into which he divided 
Canada, and this District afterwards was called the Western District, 
and included all the country west of Long Point, taking in Detroit 
and Mackinaw, and extending on the north to Hudson Bay Territory, 
and on the south to the Ohio river, and on the west to the Mississippi, 
Detroit being the District town, and the seat of the courts and the 
residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, and the following officers were 
appointed by Lord Dorchester : — 

Jacques Duperon Baby, Alexander McKee and William Robert- 
son, Judges of the Court of Common Pleas ; Gregor McGregor, Sheriff ; 
William Roe, Clerk of the Peace ; Thomas Smith, Clerk of the Court 
of Common Pleas, and Clerk of the Peace and Sessions of the Peace ; 
George Meldrum, Coroner ; and eight Justices of the Peace, who 
were : — Alexander Grant, Guilliam La Motte, St. Martin Adherman, 
William McComb, Joncaire de Chabert, Alexander Maisonville, Wil- 
liam Caldwell, Matthew Elliott. In 1789 William Dummer Powell was 
appointed Judge of Common Pleas and Probate. Our Constitutional 
Act of 1 791 came into operation under Governor Simcoe, and by a 
minute in Council of 16th July, 1792, we find Richard Pollard at King- 
ston, taking the oath of office as Sheriff of the Counties of Essex and 
Kent. 

I give these appointments to show the beginning of civil British 
Government in Detroit, and because this is the first we hear of Richard 
Pollard, afterwards the first rector of this church. 

The exodus of our people from Detroit took place on the nth 
July, 1796. 

But we must not suppose that the change from the north to the 
south bank of the beautiful River, was into a wilderness, or an unin- 
habited district, for it was known as the Parish of L' Assumption. 
This name came from the dedication of the Jesuit Mission under the 
patronage of Our Lady of L' Assumption, the Mission being called, 
"The Mission of the Huron Indians of the Detroit," established as 
early as 1728, and it is said, that as early as 1735, this Jesuit Mission 
of the Detroit numbered 600 Christian Indians, all of whom were con- 
verted and baptized by Father Rechardie. 



In 1749, 1751, and 1754, settlers were sent to Detroit from France 
at the expense of the Government, and farms were granted to them on 
both sides of the River of four arpents front on the River bank, run- 
ning back forty arpents. Farming implements and other advances 
were made to them by the Government until they were able to take 
care of themselves, which they were soon able to do. Previous to 1749 
there were no white settlers on the south shore. In 1752 there were 
twenty white families settled on it, and in that year Father Potier bap- 
tized the first white child born on the south shore. 

The Mission House erected in 1774 is still standing, and it un- 
doubtedly is the oldest building in Ontario. I was often in my young 
da}^s in this venerable Christian house, during the incumbency of 
Father Crevier and Vicar-General Macdonald. 

In 1 761 " the Mission of the Hurons " was merged into the Parish 
of L' Assumption, and the settlers on the south shore, some fifty fam- 
ilies, were released from the Parish of St. Anne's, Detroit, to become 
the first parishioners of the Church of the Assumption. Previous to 
1 76 1 the Jesuit Missionaries to the Hurons had no ecclesiastical juris- 
diction over the French settlers on the south shore. No marriages or 
funerals of these people went to the ' ' Church of the Hurons. ' ' Chil- 
dren were baptized by Father Potier, and no doubt the sacrament was 
administered with the consent of the pastor of St. Anne's Church, who 
had compassion on the poor infants doomed to cross the river in canoe, 
or on the ice if born in the winter. 

I should like to give the names of the first settlers along the 
Grande and Petite Cotes, for I knew all their descendants, and I can 
truthfully say that their courtesy or politisse made a strong impression 
on my youthful mind and one that has continued with me throughout 
my life. 

. As I have some of the blood of the Campeaus in me, it is interest- 
ing to note that, commencing on July 16th, 1761, with the baptism of 
a Campeau, the records of the Parish of L' Assumption are continuous 
and unbroken for one hundred and forty-one years. 

THK FIRST MARRIAGE. 

The first marriage recorded was between Jacques Charron and 
Jeanne Belleperche on the 23rd January, 1769 ; the first interment re- 
corded was of Charlotte Chevalier on the 20th March, 1769, ten years 
after Detroit had become British territory ; and all this is interesting 
as we learn that through the devoted and loyal efforts of Father Potier, 
the Hurons were detached from the great Pontiac conspiracy, which, 
if successful, might have ended England's occupation of New France, 
as Canada was then called. 

As early as 1793 we read of the neat farm houses of logs, white- 
washed on the outside, the smiling orchards, and the numerous crosses 
which marked the homes of the settlers along the river road, which 
extended from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie, and even beyond into the 
Townships of Colchester and Gosfield, known as the " two connected 
townships," which had been settled by the loyal Dutch Tories of the 
Province of New York, under Dorchester's order of 1789. 



Amherstburg was built' in 1796 and Sandwich in 1798.; and it is 
known from a memorandum of the Judge's at Osgoode Hall, that Judge 
Powell held a Court of Common Pleas at L' Assumption on the nth 
da}' of August, 1 79 1, by adjournment ; on 3rd September, 1792, we 
have him presiding in Court of Oyer and Terminer at Sandwich for the 
District of Hesse, and in October, 1793, presiding Judge of Oyer and 
Terminer for the Western District, held at the Court House of the 
Township of L' Assumption, (this should be Parish of L' Assumption), 
' ' in which the town of Sandwich is situated. ' ' This shows settlement, 
cultivation and prosperity. 

I am indebted for many of the above interesting particulars of the 
settlement to a most interesting paper by Miss Kilroy in the July 
number of the "Catholic Home Magazine," to which I would beg to 
refer my readers. This possesses a personal interest for me, for my 
good mother was a Catholic up to her marriage, as were her mother and 
all her sisters with one or two exceptions, on marriage, while her father 
and brother were protestants. St. Anne's church, Detroit, was the 
place where they were baptized. 

REV. MR. POLLARD THE FIRST RECTOR. 

Now we return to Mr. Pollard : he was an Englishman and came 
as a young man from England to the United States and when our 
people left Detroit for this side Mr. Pollard came too, and, as we see, 
continued to fill different civil offices. In 1792 he was made sheriff of 
Essex and Kent, in 1793 he was appointed registrar of the counties of 
Essex and Kent, in 1794 he was appointed registrar of Surrogate 
Court and on January 1st, 1800, he again held the same office, in 1800 
he was made sheriff of the Western District and on August 29th, 1S01, 
he was appointed Judge of Surrogate. In 1802 he was made a Deacon 
and was ordained a priest in 1804 by Bishop Mountain, of Quebec, 
to which place he went for his diaconate and ordination. He was the 
first ordained clergyman west of Niagara and was appointed missionary 
to Sandwich and Amherstburg, and no doubt discharged his duties 
through both the counties of Essex and Kent, including his former 
home, Detroit. Mr. C. W. Burton, of Detroit, says : "Except Mr. 
Pollard, no Episcopal clergyman is known to have officiated in Detroit 
before the arrival of the Rev. Alanson W. Wilson in 182 1." There 
we read of him as officiating in the Protestant Episcopal church, 
where his memory is cherished by a memorial window in St. Paul's 
church of that city, I have no doubt that looking back at his active 
and varied official and ministerial life he did the work of lay-reader and 
officiated at baptisms, burials, marriages and other offices of the church 
during his stay in Detroit, Sandwich and Amherstburg, and through- 
out the two counties. It has been a tradition he was kept a prisoner 
on the other side from 18 13 to 18 14, but this is a mistake, as his ab- 
sence was because he was chaplain to the forces. This is shown by a 
memorial from him to the Commander-in-Chief, here subjoined, found 
in the Michigan Pioneer Historical records. 

Fortunately the tablet here has kept his memory fresh in the minds 
of its members and given us definite particulars of his birth, work and 
death in 1824 ; Mr. Hind has found an entry in the parish records 






which is as follows : " The Rev. Richard Pollard of Sandwich was ab- 
sent from that place from February, 1814, to June, 1815, on account of 
the war, and was appointed and sent to Earnestown, on the Bay of 
Quinte, during that period." This agrees with his memorial and ex- 
plains his incumbency at Earnestown. 

THE MEMORIAL. 

To His Excellency, Sir George Provist, Baronet, Chaplain General and Governor in Ghiej 
in and over the Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, &c. 

May it please your Excellency : 

The Memorial of the Rev. Richard Pollard, Chaplain of the Garrison of Amherst- 
burgh, humbly showeth : 

That your memorialist has been the Chaplain to the Garrison of Amherstburgh 
since the year 1802, in eight years of which period your memorialist performed the 
duty of chaplain at his own expense, although situated at Sandwich, 16 miles from 
the Garrison, and that at present he is an involuntary exile from that place. 

Your memorialist has been on his duty with the right division of the army 
from the invasion of the Western District by General Hull to his unfortunate cap- 
ture at Moraviantown. 

Your memorialist furnished a horse for the Militia and troops for 12 months 
without any charge to Government, and continually escaped with little more than 
bare necessaries. 

Your memorialist humbly solicits of your Excellency's goodness to continue 
him on the list of chaplains, and your memorialist as in duty bound will every pray. 

(Sgd.) Richard PoivivARD, 

Chaplain to the Garrison at Amherstburgh. 

Earnestown, 20th Oct., 1814. 

In a similar p^sjtrcjft Mr. P. says that each visit to the Garrison from Sandwich 
cost him $6 and three days' time, and he received for his services as chaplain to 
the forces $100. 

He was followed by the Rev. Robert Short in that year, who con- 
tinued till 1827, I remember him quite well ; he was very small and 
was called, "Little Bobby Short," and I recall quite distinctly one 
Sunday morning, the congregation were waiting his appearance, and as 
he didn't come, I was sent to tell him, and making some excuse which 
I forget, he came and relieved the impatient congregation. He was 
unmarried, but later married Miss Maria Forsyth of this town. He 
went to Lower Canada when, after serving in several missions, he died 
in 1879 at Montmorenci. 

Then came the Rev. Edward Jukes Boswell from 1827 to 1828, 
when he was transferred to London and became the first missionary 
stationed in that now cathedral city, preceding immediately the Rev. 
Benjamin Croniu, who became the first bishop of the Diocese of Huron 
on its separation in 1857. 

The Rev. Wm. Johnson came from the West Indies to Amherstburg, 
and then here as the teacher of the Grammar School, 1828, and later 
was ordained to the ministry, and continued rector till his death in 
September, 1840. I remember his going to Montreal to be ordained. 
He was married and had four or five children, and our late lamented 
friend, Canon Johnson of Windsor, was his third son. He was my 
teacher from 1828 till 1836, was a first-class classical man and a most 
genial Irish gentleman. It was during his incumbency and in August, 



i833< that Col. Prince and family came to Sandwich, and this was fol- 
lowed by the first square pew being put in the church. The family 
consisted of six members and there was not a vacant pew nor place to 
put one, except the space between the pulpit and the front pew, and it 
was arranged that Mr. Prince might have his pew built there, and this 
was done ; quite an addition in every way to the little church. The 
family was most exemplary in its attendance at church, and its influ- 
ence was felt far and wide. A great event in the church, town and 
country, was the arrival of this gifted family, socially, financially and 
politically, and its record is as sad as it was brilliant. Mr. Prince was 
one of the wardens from 1834 to 1836, when he became the member 
for Essex. 

A look at the parish register shows at once the hand of the lawyer 
in the regular entry of the vestry meetings, the resolutions and accounts 
passed, etc., as well as the skill of the accomplished conveyancer as 
seen in the fine engrossing in old English characters of the first page. 

The Rev. Thomas Earle Welby came as the successor to Mr. 
Johnson ; he was a major in the army, and had been an officer of the 
13th Eight Dragoons in India. I had known him as an officer during 
the rebellion of 1837 at Brantford, where he had a fine estate, as he had 
large private means. He was married, but came without his wife and 
family, and as he had known my mother also at Brantford, he made 
our house his home till the arrival of his family. Mr. Welby was the 
finest type of an English officer and gentleman, and belonged to one of 
the oldest families in England, antedating the Conquest. With his 
sense of duty as a soldier, and his great regard for his high office as a 
clergyman of the Church of England, he was soon an active, zealous, 
popular and loved pastor. Owing to circumstances he was called home 
to England and left us in 1842, but he left to the church the rectory 
that he had provided for himself on the Detroit River, and which is 
now occupied by your esteemed rector. Mr. Welby in 1851 became 
Archdeacon of Georgetown in Cape Colony, and in 1852 was conse- 
crated at Lambeth Palace Chapel, second Bishop of St. Helena, with 
Episcopal jurisdiction over the Islands of Ascension and Tristan d' 
Accunha, he had reached a good age, but was killed by his horses run- 
ning away with him in 1900. I had been favored by receiving from 
him a year or so before his photograph and autograph. 

I tell in my pamphlet upon the Cutting out of the Caroline, the 
circumstance of his finding me with very bruised feet from marching 
from Hamilton to Brantford in December, 1837, over the most fearful 
roads, and his telling me how to treat them, and of his getting a shav- 
ing box and brush and going down on his knee and showing me how 
to apply the lather. I was the private, he was the major, but he, "As 
he that serveth," like the Master of old in whose steps he ever so faith- 
fully trod. 

Mr. Welby was Vice-President of the Western District Eiterary, 
Philosophical and Agricultural Club, the first meeting of which was 
held at Amhertburg in the reading room of the town, on the 15th of 
July, 1842. I give one of the six resolutions adopted that day. 

" Moved by the Rev. T. E. Welby, seconded by Dr. Grassett, That the diver- 






sified range of the society's researches, like the noble scope of the first British 
literary association established in Asia, shall embrace at once 'Man and nature,' 
or in other words, ' whatever is performed by the one or produced by the other,' 
and that the only qualification required in a candidate for admission shall be a love 
of knowledge, and a patriotic desire to forward the prosperity of the Province in 
general and of the District in particular, by promoting the advancement and dif- 
fusion of literary, philosophical and agricultural knowledge." 

Iii 1843 came the Rev. William Ritchie, who stayed till 1851, 
when he went to West Gtiilli^mbury, County of Simcoe ; he with the Rev. 
Mr. Eeitch came from the Presbyterian Church to our Communion, 
and was ordained by Bishop Strachan. the first Bishop of Toronto, in 
1843, and appointed at once to Sandwich. We were great friends up 
to the time I left Sandwich in 1850. We renewed our friendship in 
1870 when I visited him at Georgetown. He said to me then, " I have, 
never read the first collect of the ante communion service through all 
these years without thinking of you," and I said, "Why?" and he 
kindly said, " Because you once called my attention to the way in 
which you thought it ought to be read, as one of the most perfect com- 
positions in the Prayer Book, and I have ever since tried to do it." 

The Rev. E. H. Dewar came in 1853, an( i was incumbent when the 
Diocese of Huron was organized in 1857, when his ministry ceased here, 
and he went, I Believe, to Richmond Hill. 

The Rev. John Hurst succeeded Mr. Dewar from 1859 to 1863. 
He went to Windsor and then to England, where he died not long since. 

The Rev. Francis Gore Elliott succeeded Mr. Hurst. He was a 
native of the County of Essex, eldest son of Colonel Matthew Elliott, 
of " The Point," below Amherstburg, one of the most prominent men 
in His Majesty's service in the early days. He studied for the church 
in Montreal and was ordained by Bishop Strachan. His first care 
was in the Township of Colchester. He was here from 1863 to 
1879, and like myself , was one of Mr. Johnson's pupils at Amherst- 
burg. It is told of his father that he was the means of saving 
General Proctor from being shot by Tecumseh at Moraviantown by 
throwing up his rifle. 

The Rev. Richard Johnstone followed from 1879 to 1887, and was 
succeeded by your present worthy rector. The Rev. Mr. Hind was ap- 
pointed as rector on the 10th August, 1887. Who in the County of 
Essex does not know and admire him ? He was born in Toronto in 
1833, and educated at King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. He 
passed several years in the Northwest on the C. P. R. survey, and re- 
turning to Nova Scotia was ordained by the late Bishop Binney in 
1879. Mr. Hind is a son of Professor Henry Yale Hind, now an old 
gentleman of over eighty, residing at Windsor, N. S. Professor Hind 
was the geoligist of the first Canadian expedition sent to the Northwest 
in 1857, and in charge of the Assinniboine and Saskatchewan expedi- 
tion in 1858. Three years later he was sent by the Canadian Govern- 
ment on an expedition into the interior of Labrador, and was the first 
white man to stand on the watershed of that great unknown land. 
He was the scientific adviser and ichthyologist to the British Commis- 
sion at the Fishery Commission that met in Halifax, N. S., in July, 
1878, according to the terms of the treaty of Washington, and it was 



mainly on his evidence that the award was based of $5,500,000 given 
to Canada. The rector of St. John's Church, like his distinguished 
father, is a man of considerable research and travel, and is much 
thought of for his large openheartedness and generosity. I had the 
honor of knowing Professor Hind as early as 1853 and learning much 
from his well-stored scientific mind. 

Mr. Hind has learned that the Rev. Philip Loosey held several 
services along the Detroit River in 1786, and on becoming rector of 
Quebec in the same year, the Rev. George Mitchell took his place and 
remained for 18 months. My thanks are due to Canon Richardson, Rev. 
Mr. Farthing, Rev. Mr. Hind and Mr. Burton for aid given me in this. 

THE FIRST CHURCH BURNED. 

It is not known when the first church was built, but it seems to 
be established that it was burned down in the war of 18 12. Doctor, 
afterwards Bishop Strachan, writes in 18 14 as follows : — " The enemy 
have twice captured the town since the spring of 18 13, all the public 
buildings have been burnt, and much loss sustained by many of the in- 
habitants." The S. P. G. Societies report as : — " The Americans also 
took possession of Sandwich and Niagara, they burnt the church there, 
carrying off from Sandwich the church books, and the Rev. R. Pollard, 
who was released in 18 14, on the prospect of peace." The latter state- 
ment as to Mr. Pollard's capture and release we have seen is at variance 
with the words of his petition. 

My friend, Mr. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture of Toronto, 
writes me : — " I can find very little about the early Anglican church at 
Sandwich." Herriott in his travels, 1807, refers to Sandwich and 
says : — " There is a Roman Catholic mission ;" but makes no mention 
of a church of any kind. I think he would have mentioned it, if such 
were there. 

Gourlay in his work, 181 7, gives the following from the report of 
the residents, Volume I, p. p. 275-280, "3rd" : — " One Roman Catholic 
church and two priests, no Protestant church or chapel (the same hav- 
ing been destroyed by the enemy during the late war), and but one 
preacher of the ' Church of England.' " 

In the Christian Recorder which was begun in March, 18 18, the 
Rev. John Strachan, editor, the first article gives a sketch of the His- 
tory of the Anglican Church : — " There is a list of ten clergymen in 
Upper Canada and the Rev. Richard Pollard settled in Sandwich West- 
ern District, a church is now building." 

Mr. James adds these are all the facts that I can find at present, it 
would seem that there had been a church at Sandwich some time be- 
tween 1807 and the war of 181 2, it was destroyed and the Rev. Mr. 
Pollard went to Harnestown to take up Mr. Langhorn's work after the 
latter left in 181 3. The new church was begun in 18 16 or thereabouts 
and finished in 1818. 

It is interesting to learn how scant were the Church's influences of 
that day. At the first session of the Legislature of Upper Canada, 
1792, the Hon. Richard Cartwright reports as follows: — "Although 
the two Lower Districts have had each of them a Protestant clergyman 
since 1786, it is but a few months since this (Nassau, or Home) Dis- 



IO 

trict has been provided with one ; and the Western District in which 
the settlement of Detroit is included, is to this day destitute of that 
useful and respectable order of men, yet the town of Detroit is, and has 
been since the conquest, inhabited for the most part by traders of the 
Protestant religion, who reside there with their families." 

' ' In the Western District there are no other clergy than those of 
the Church of Rome." 

The late Bishop Strachan says : — " That down to the close of the 
war of 1812-15 there were but four resident clergymen or missionaries 
of the Church of England in all Upper Canada, and that till 18 18 there 
was but one clergyman of the Church of Scotland in Upper Canada, 
and that in 1827 there were but two." 

The first church was built say in the year 1807, and that it was 
burnt by Harrison's men in September, 18 13. 

The second church must have been begun in 18 16 or near that date 
and completed in 1818. 

It is on the 15th of September that I find that my father paid for 
Lord Selkirk his subscription of $100 towards its erection. Mr. Jen- 
kins, of Walkerville, says that his father was married in it, and thinks 
it was the first marriage in the church and was solemnized on the 25th 
July, 18 1 8. The bricks to build it were brought from Buffalo, and the 
tower as it now stands was built in 1845, an( ^ tne brother of the pre- 
sent Police Magistrate Bartlett was the builder or contractor. 

The present church was built during the incumbency of the Rev. 
Francis Gore Elliott in 1872. It owes its erection to the efforts of the 
faithful women of the parish, among whom w T ere the Misses Cowan and 
the late Mrs. Joseph Mercer, whose life was brought to so dramatic a 
close during the service in this church on the 20th December of 1891, 
when she died in Mr. Hind's arms. The land on which the church 
stands w r as conveyed to the Right Rev. Dr. Stewart, Bishop of Quebec, 
in 1834 by the Crown. The land on which the rectory stands was con- 
veyed to the Church Society of the Diocese of Huron by the Venerable 
Archdeacon Welby, of Cape Town, South Africa, in the year 1862. 
For the last 100 years there have been eleven rectors of this church. 

The Misses Cow 7 an I have known since our school days, and to 
their aunt, Miss Hall, Sandwich and the whole Western District were 
indebted for the first ladies' school, and a most admirably conducted 
one it was, and I also knew intimately Mrs. Mercer, who was one of 
the most self-denying and sympathetic natures as well as warm and 
practical friend I ever knew. 

And it was to the father of the Misses Cowan the country was in- 
debted for the Sandwich Emigrant, which he came from New 7 York to 
establish here in 1830, the first newspaper in the District. 

There was in the Western District a good share of literary talent. 
The late Mr. Charles Eliot, who for many years was Judge of the Dis- 
trict, was conspicuous for his literary tastes, and who in a newspaper 
controversy witli the celebrattd Dr. Egerton Ryerson proved to be the 
successful contestant. 

Mr. John Gentle, the baker, was another. His contributions on 
all subjects were to be found in the newspapers of the day. While he 



II 

was resident in Detroit he wrote to the Cincinnati papers and dealt 
with all questions of Government, banking, municipal work, etc., and 
I think the index references in Farmer's great history of Detroit refers 
to him some sixty times. 

If the Church was so inadequately represented in those early years 
by clergymen, there was another teacher in the person of our noble first 
Lieutenant-Governor, Col. John Graves Simcoe, who on the nth April, 
1793, issued his proclamation from Government House, Newark, to 
the people of Upper Canada, and which was read four times each year 
in our courts in Detroit, Mackinaw, Sandwich and all other parts of 
the Province. 

I have felt it a great privilege to be able to republish this admir- 
able appeal, for it is as appropriate and valuable to-day as it was at the 
opening of our organization as a Province, and I may say that this is 
the third centennial record in which I have republished it. 

PROCLAMATIO]^" 
By John Graves Simcoe, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor and Colonel com- 
manding His Majesty 's Forces in the Provinces 
of Upper Canada. 

"Whereas, it is the indispensable duty of all people, and more 
especially of all Christian nations, to preserve and advance the honor 
and service of Almighty God, and to discourage and suppress all vice, 
profaneness and immorality, which if not timely prevented may justly 
draw down the Divine vengence upon us and our country. And His 
Majesty, having for the promotion of virtue and in tenderness to the 
interests of his subjects, given command for causing all laws made 
against blasphemy, profaneness, adultery, fornication, polygamy, in- 
cest, profanation of the Lord's Day, swearing and drunkenness, to be 
strictly put in execution in every part of the Province, I do, therefore, 
direct, require and command the peace officers and constables of the 
several towns and townships to make presentment upon oath, of any 
of the vices before mentioned to the justices of the peace in their sec- 
tion, or to any of the other temporal courts. And for the more effec- 
tual proceeding herein, all judges, justices and magistrates, and all 
other officers concerned for putting the laws against crimes and offences 
into execution are directed and commanded to exert themselves for the 
due prosecution and punishment of all persons who shall presume to 
offend in any of the kinds aforesaid ; and also of all persons that con- 
trary to their duty, shall be remiss or negligent in putting the said laws 
into execution. And I do further charge and command, that the pro- 
clamation be publickly read in all courts of justice on the first day of 
every session to be held in the courts of the present year, and more 
especially in such of His Majesty's courts as have the cognizance of 
crimes and offences ; recommending the same to all Christian ministers 
of every denomination, to cause the same proclamation to be read four 
times in the said year, immediately after divine services in all places of 
public worship and that they do their utmost endeavor to incite their 
respective auditors to the practice of piety and virtue and the avoid- 



12 

ance of every course, contrary to the pure morality of the religion of 
the holy gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Given under my hand and seal at arms, at the Government House, 
Navy Hall, the eleventh day of April, in the year of Our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-three, and in the thirty-third year 
of His Majesty's reign. 

J. G. S. 
By His Excellency's command, 

WM. JARVIS, Secretary. 

GROWTH OF ANGLICANISM. 

With how profound a sense of gratitude we should look back upon 
this centennial period of our church and country. It is marvellous, 
and awakens the deepest emotions of praise and thanksgiving to our 
heavenly Father for the wondrous results that have attended the pro- 
gress of the century alike from a material and a spiritual aspect. 

Let us take our own Diocese of Huron as an index of what the 
development has been throughout our land. Clergy in active service, 
146 ; total number on the roll, 164. Number of church edifices, 246 ; 
value of same, $821,465. Seating accommodation, 61,837. Number 
of parsonages, 78. Church population, 52,867. Sunday schools in the 
Diocese, 22. Total number of those engaged in Sunday school work — 
officers, teachers and pupils, 18,960 ; and a population of over 800,000. 
And as with Huron, so with all the other Dioceses in the Dominion, 
with a Dominion Mission Board taking in all the baptized members of 
the church and calling for a contribution of $75,000 for the mission 
work alone. Then look at the Sunday schools and the various agencies 
and organizations for church work among young and old, and how 
grand the spectacle is when we recall, in addition, what our fellow 
Christians of the other communions are doing in the Master's cause ; 
the Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Salvation Army, the 
Plymouth Brethren, the Colored churches and other branches of the 
Protestant Church, rivalling us and each other in their zeal and self- 
consecration, and giving us deep cause for congratulation and encour- 
agement. 

When we think of the various and vigorous agencies of the 
church in the brotherhood of St. Andrew's, that of Andrew and Peter, 
the Young Men's Christian Association with its large membership, the 
Young Women's Christian Association, the Christian Endeavor 
with its 3,700,000 members, the Epworth League with its 3,000,- 
000, the Baptist Young Peoples' Society, the Woman's Auxiliary, 
the World's Student Movement with its membership of 200,000, the 
Students' Volunteer Movement, the Church Settlements, the Uni- 
versity Settlements, the Daughters of the King, the Sisterhoods and 
the Brotherhoods and the Lay-readers, the Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Association, the Church of England Temperance Society with 
the Archbishops and other Bishops as total abstainers, and all other 
kindred Societies, the Bible Study and Prayer Unions, we see power- 
ful forces for the edification and conversion of the churches and the 
help of the Pastors. 



13 

Again, when we look at the legislation and conferences in behalf 
of Charities and Correction, educating the public mind to the great 
value of movements for the betterment of the poor, saving neglected 
and dependent children, treatment and reformation of juvenile offend- 
ers, prison reformation and its related subjects, detention and cure of 
inebriates, charity organization, rescue work among women and girls, 
care and treatment of the feeble-minded, prevention and cure of tuber- 
culosis, we see new fields and opportunities for the operation of the 
altruistic thought of the Church ; and further, the Church newspapers 
and the publication of sermons and Church proceedings by the secular 
press. 

Wonderful has been the progress of the Church throughout all 
portions of the World, and especially in our own Dominion. 

Mr. Pollard was ordained in 1802 by Bishop Jacob Mountain, the 
first Bishop in Canada, and now we have twenty Bishops with 
an early prospect of more, for some of the Dioceses are very ex- 
tensive. Bishop Mountain's jurisdiction took in Quebec and Upper 
Canada, and stretched far into the west and was only bounded by the 
Pacific Ocean. Eight times he came over this enormous Diocese, 
making the journey, which amounted to about 3000 miles, every three 
years. He set down the cost of a trip from Montreal to Detroit at 
^150 or about $750. He died on the 18th of June, 1825, at the age 
of seventy four, having been thirty two years a Bishop. He left 61 
clergymen, including three Archdeacons, in the whole Diocese when 
at his orrival in 1793 he had found but nine. This increase, however, 
was mainly in the west, eleven only being in that territory known as 
the Diocese of Quebec. When appointed there was only a church at 
Sorel and the foundation of one at Niagara. He left sixty churches 
either built or in progress of building. It is related by Kingsford that 
on his arrival at Quebec on being met by the Catholic Bishop, Mon- 
signieur Briand, the latter welcomed him and gave him a kiss on each 
cheek, saying it was time he had come to take charge of his people. 

REMINISCENT. 

The Honorable the Reverend Charles James Stewart was the 
second Bishop of Quebec. He was the brother of the Earl of Gallo- 
way and came to this country as a missionary in September 1807. He 
visited Sandwich in 1820. I have an interesting letter from him to 
my father written from Hamilton and dated the 10th day of May of 
that year. He was again here in 1833 as Bishop Stewart and con- 
firmed me. I have an earlier association however with this sainted 
man for I have a letter from my father to my mother's father giving 
a description of the young missionary as he had married one of my 
father's sisters to lieutenant Blaquire in 18 10 at St. Johns. 

My father relates a characteristic anecdote of the young clergy- 
man in these words : "the marriage wa's on Saturday and it was of 
course expected that the clergyman would dine with them, but as he 
had written to his parishoners that he would be with them on Sunday 
morning, he contented himself with a cake and a glass of wine and set 



off in an open canoe, although it rained, that he might not forfeit 
his promise. 

In one of his trips to Sandwich in 1820 he covered a circuit of 
1880 miles, and his journeys, as a rule were made on horseback. He 
and ni}'- grandfather Woods were great friends and kindred spirits. 

The population of Upper Canada in 1826 was 164,000 ; it had 
more than doubled during his ten years Episcopate. 

Bishop Sweatraan, of Toronto, in his sketch of the Woodstock 
parish, says : — "In 1834 the whole of Upper and Lower Canada was 
under the Episcopal jurisdiction of the sainted Charles James Stewart, 
second Bishop of Quebec, the father of the Church of Upper Canada, 
to whose apostolic missionary labors a large number of our parishes 
owe their existence. It was in this year that he founded the Upper 
Canadian Travelling Fund, in England better known as the "Stewart 
Missions." He died in England in 1837 and was followed by Bishop 
George F. Mountain, son of the late Bishop Jacob Mountain, whose 
jurisdiction took in not only Upper and Lower Canada but Rupert's 
Land which was then an indefinite term by which the vast territory of 
North America was designated. 

In 1799 some enthusiastic churchmen of the evangelical school 
formed in England a Church Missionary Society which was to be for 
the heathen what the S. P. G. had been for the colonists. This Church 
Missionary Society established a mission in 1822 at the Red River 
settlement — now Winnipeg. The mission was established for the pur- 
pose of ministering to the Indians who were living in the most de- 
graded condition of heathenism. The Bishop made up his mind in 
1843 t° visit this country with a view, if possible, to establishing a 
bishopric there. The trip involved a touring of about 1800 miles by 
canoe and he did not reach Montreal till August 16th. 

BISHOP STRACHAN. 

The first Bishop of Upper Canada was Dr. Strachan,- ordained in 
1839. He was a Scotchman with a most pronounced Aberdeen brogue 
which remained with him to the last. After holding one or two 
situations as a teacher in Scotland, he was offered a position in Lower 
Canada by the Governor to take charge of an Academy there at a 
stipend ^80 a year. He arrived in Canada as he himself put it, on 
the last day of the last week of the last month of the last year of the 
last century and he lasted till November 1867 — 89 years and 7 months. 
It fell to his lot to educate almost all the leading public men of Upper 
Canada of the past century and in Toronto University and Trinity 
College (now about to be confederated) we have monuments of his 
passion for education and his achievements in this great field. In 1812 
he was appointed a member of the Executive Council of Upper Canada 
and was a power in both church and state. With him as with the 
second Bishop Mountain, we have to associate the vexed question of 
the Clergy Reserves, which was finally put at rest by the parliament 
of United Canada in 1854, distributing them among the churches 
and municipalities — our own diocese has a fund from this and other 
sources of some $7 20,000 invested from which an income is derived 
that greatly aids its diocesan work. 



15 

Dr. Charles Inglis was the first Bishop of Nova Scotia and the 
first of the Colonial Bishops 1787- 1816. 

Dr. Seabury was the first Bishop of our church in America, as 
Bishop of Connecticut and was consecrated by the non-juring Bishops 
of Scotland on the 14th of November 1784— the first Bishop on earth 
to occupy a diocese anywhere on earth, outside of Great Britain and 
Ireland, in connection with the Anglican communion — the first to be 
honored of the American Episcopate which to-day numbers some 
85 prelates. 

Strange to say, I have a personal connection with this great and 
good man through my son-in-law Mr. J. Seabury O'Dewyer, of 
Granby, Quebec, who is one of the Bishop's descendants. 

It was no doubt a sad day when the devoted band of Loyalists 
took their departure from Detroit leaving their homes and the dearest 
of friends to make for themselves new habitations on the opposite 
shore. This withdrawal meant the surrender of vast territories such 
as now make the States of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wis- 
consin and a part of Minnesota. Detroit up to this time had been the 
County Town, of the County of Kent and on this change Kent lost the 
prestige of being the seat of the Courts while Sandwich gained it 
and has ever since retained it I am glad to say. The beautiful towns 
of Amherstburg and Sandwich with their fine residences, schools, 
orchards and gardens were the early result of the change. I have 
never been one of those who grieved over this great loss of territory. 
It would always have been the source of conflict between the two 
peoples and then it is a natural and reasonable boundary making with 
the great lakes a fair division line of the continent, and I am glad to 
say our great historian Dr. Kingsford takes the same view of it and 
says: "One of the wisest provisions in the Treaty of Versailles was 
the establishment of the boundary where it is, and that this decision 
was formed, I consider is in no small degree attributable to the un- 
fortunate expedition of Hamilton " 

When we look back over this hundred years and see the progress 
peace and prosperity of this land, what great reason we have for 
thanks to our Heavenly Father that our lot has been cast in it. 

THE WAR OF 1812-15. 

With the exception of the war of 18 12 to 18 15, there has been no 
conflict between our neighbors and ourselves and for the past eighty- 
eight years, so far as international trouble is concerned we might have 
been one of the States of the Union — a most happy condition and one 
that we pray may be perpetual. 

Sandwich was the first place to feel the war. It was declared on 
the 18th of June 18 12 and on the 7th of July General Hull crossed 
from Detroit with 2,300 men or so and took possession of Sandwich, 
which he held till August 7th, when he withdrew on the approach of 
General Brock by way of Amherstburg, when Detroit and Michigan 
again became ours, and remained so until after Perry's victory on 
Lake Erie in September, 1813. 

Sandwich suffered a good deal during the Rebellion of 1837, owing 



i6 

to the attacks of Thellar, Sutherland and others, and particularly in 
the women and children having several times to retire to the conces- 
sions on the threatened approach of the pirates, but we won't think 
this very serious when we read to-day that in the Macedonian conflict 
in the Valayet of Monastir there are 150,000 women and children 
and old men in the mountains and forests seeking refuge from the mur- 
derous Turks. 

The battle of Windsor on the 4th of December, 1838, was the 
crowning event of the frontier's troubles. That morning a body of the 
invaders crossed the river and burnt the steamer Thames which lay at 
a Windsor dock and began their destructive work. Dr. Hume, the 
army surgeon stationed at Sandwich, was killed and his body mutilated 
while on his way to help the wounded, and this greatly inflamed our 
troops and people. Then it was that the militia and troops from Am- 
herstburg under Col. Airey appeared and the pirates were soon over- 
come and scattered. Some were taken prisoners, who were shot by 
order of Col. Prince, in the words of his memorable dispatch, " All of 
whom I ordered to be shot which was done accordingly," and which I 
may say proved the most effective means of putting an end to the 
piratical invasions of this frontier. This order made Col. Prince the 
most popular man in Upper Canada, but it led to a great deal of dis- 
satisfaction and bitterness in the community, and the challenging by 
him of some fourteen of his former friends, some, members of this con- 
gregation, with one of whom he had a duel with the result that his 
opponent was wounded. This was Mr. W. R. Wood, the gentleman 
whose name appears for many years as one of the wardens of this 
church. I have often had to explain that he was neither my brother 
Joseph nor myself. He was an Englishman, while we were Canadians 
and approved of the colonel's order, which was only the carrying out 
of a decision arrived at some time before at a public meeting of all the 
inhabitants, that no more prisoners should be made of the pirates but 
that they should be shot on the field. 

The second son of Colonel James Askin, lieutenant Charles, came 
to an early death by being accidentally shot by a sentry. He was one 
of the bravest young men I ever met. And another, the only son of 
Judge Eliot, a graduate of Toronto University, and barrister, and giv- 
ing great promise of a useful life, came to his death during the Fenian 
raid, 1866, in the same sad way on leaving a friend's house in Sand- 
wich after dark, through some misunderstanding on the sentry's part. 

In the first Session of the first Parliament of Upper Canada, an 
Act was passed abrogating the ancient laws of Canada, and, in all fu- 
ture controversy, resort was to be had to the laws of England. The 
law was not to interfere with the provisions affecting Ecclesiastical 
rights within the Province. 

EARLY MARRIAGE LAWS. 

It is to be remembered that at that date by English law, no mar- 
riage was legal until performed by a minister of the Church of Eng- 
land, consequently the children by other marriages were by law, 
illegitimate. In many cases in the neighborhood of the forts no 



17 

clergyman was present, the service had been read by the commanding 
officer, or by an officer appointed by him. In other parts of the coun- 
try at the home of the first settlement, the Justice of the Peace has 
performed the ceremony. Many districts were imperfectly provided 
with clergymen, and in these cases laymen had officiated. 

A strong feeling had grown up, whatever the moral character of 
the relationship, that the children from these marriages had no legal 
right to the inheritance of the property of their sires. This was reme- * 
died in the second Session by 33, George III, C. 1, (1793), making.^ 
such marriages valid, and providing for future ones.^^B^srrGllieTKct 
of that Session, Presbyterian, Lutheran and Calvfcffist ministers were 
authorized to celebrate marriages between certain persons, provided 
they were not under any legal disqualification, but it did not include 
the Methodists. This came later, in 1830, 11, George IV, when minis- 
ters of the Church of Scotland, Congregationalists, Baptists, Indepen- 
dents, Methodists, Menonists, Tunkers or Moravians were added. 

As late as 1804 my own parents were married by Judge Selby, who 
was the Judge of the Western District Court, and I here give a copy 
of the marriage certificate, as of the eight witnesses present, the most 
familiar names of that day are found. 

Whereas, James Woods, of the Town of Sandwich, and Elizabeth Grant, of 
Grosse Point, in the Territory of the United States, were desirous of intermarrying 
with each other, and there being no parson or minister of the Church of England 
living within eighteen miles of them, or either of them, they have applied to me 
for that purpose : Now these are to certify that in pursuance of the powers granted 
by an Act of the Legislature of this Province (of Upper Canada) passed in the 
thirty-third year of His Majesty's reign, I, Prideaux Selby, one of His Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace, having caused the previous notice by the Statute required to 
be given, have this day married the said James Woods and Elizabeth Grant together, 
and they are become legally contracted to each other in marriage. 
Sandwich, 12th June, 1804. 

Signed, P. SEivBY. 
Signed, J. Woods. 
Signed, Elizabeth Woods. 
Witnesses present : 
Signed, Angus Mcintosh, 
Alex. Grant, 
William Hands, 
Alex. Duff, 
Mary Hands, 
Alice Brush, 
E. Brush, 
J. B. Barthe, 
James McGregor. 

COPY OF BISHOP STEWART'S LETTER. 

Hamilton, May 10, 1820. 

Dear Sir, — I wrote a letter to you last Friday, and on Sunday I discovered 
that I had sent the letter off in a box to Montreal. 

I arrived at York on the 29th after a good journey, having had good health, 
for the most part. The road for the first thirty miles from Amherstburg is pretty 
good, afterwards, to Col. Talbot's — eighty miles — is very bad, scarcely passable in 
some places ; but I am glad that I visited the poor people in that new part of the 
country. 

On the 23rd I preached at the Mohawk Village on the Grand River, and next 
day I visited the Tusotrora Village, and Major Norton. I liked my visit to him, 
and also one I made tq Mr. and Miss Brant on 7th — 27th. 

<7^ 



I expect to be at Montreal about the ist of June, when I shall be happy to at- 
tend to your wishes and instructions with regard to your son, and to deliver your 
letter to him 

Be so good as to present my best regards to Mrs. Woods, to the Mackintoshes, 
and other friends, also to Mr. Pollard and Mr. Rolph. You may inform the two 
last gentlemen that on enquiry, I found Dr. Strachan had receive 1 a box of books 
for the clergy, and that he will send them a portion of the books. They were sent 
from London by Government. My instructions were to sell them for the most 
part at a low price ; and I sold the Bibles at three-quarters of a dollar, and the 
Prayer Books (bound with a Testament) at half a dollar ; but I gave some away, 
and kept an account of all. They will use their own discretion. 

I hope your health is good, that you are able to benefit by good books, and 
that you grow in grace and in the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. Pray God 
to give the increase and persevere. 

Believe me, truly, Dear Sir, 

Yours very sincerelv, 

C. Stewart. 

At York I was told the Bishop proposed being there early in June. 

To Jas. Woods, Esq., 
Sandwich. 

THE MORAVIAN CHURCH. 

It should be stated that in 1792 the Moravian Mission was estab- 
lished in Kent, which at that time included Detroit as the county town. 
The minister was the celebrated David Ziezberger. This mission 
represented the historic Church of Moravia (for the Indians are not so 
called from any tribe of that name) and Bohemia, founded in 1457, 
nearly three-quarters of a century before Luther's Reformation. The 
mission entertained Governor Simcoe and his suite in February, 1793, 
on his way to visit the fort and troops at Detroit, and on his return. 
This noble body of Christians had been ten years in reaching their 
Canadian Canaan in their journey from their home in Ohio. The first 
year they passed at a point where Mount Clemens in Michigan, now is 
— 1783-84, they lost their corn crop, and the winter was one of the 
severest known ; the ice on Lake St. Clair was three feet two inches 
thick, and the snow five feet deep, which interfered with both hunting 
and fishing, but they were saved from their getting a large quantity of 
venison from a herd of deer that strayed into the neighborhood ; and 
with the sale of the surplus, bought corn for the spring's use, and their 
stay there led to the making of the first inland road out of Detroit, 
which was made by Mr. John Askin (grandfather of Mr. Alexander 
Askin, of Strabane,) and Major Ancruin. 

For a short time they settled at the mouth of the Detroit River 
below Amherstburg, where they received much kindness from Colonel 
Elliott and Colonel McKee, and from which point they came to Kent. 
The Church of England, in England, contemplated union with this Epis- 
copal branch of the Church, as the Unitas Fratrum. 

This mission dispensed the offices of the Church through its trusty 
evangelical pastors, and to a large section of Kent for many years, as 
it was twenty-seven years after its establishment before Chatham had 
its first church. The battle of Moraviantown was a sad day for them. 
The village was burnt and they retired to Burlington, where they 
stayed for some months, but returned and made a new home on the 
south side of the river, where their descendants may be seen to-day 



19 

a happy, prosperous people. They had their centennial in [892, a 
pamphlet account of which I prepared and which, by the way, with 
this makes my fourth centennial story. 

The first Methodist chapel was built in 1838, and I remember 
well the good impression made in the community by the appearance of 
this communion. I remember that one of them was in the employ- 
ment of the Rev. Mr. Johnson, the pastor of this church for many 
years at fifty cents a day, and how exemplary a man in every way 
was William Westaway. 

SCIKNCK AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT. 

We have heard much of Holy Scripture and the Higher Criticism, 
Science against Christianity, and the decadence of religion. 

These have not disturbed me in the least. Indeed they have sharp- 
ened and strengthened my faith. I have followed the adverse criticism, 
but with neither fear nor doubt, only a stronger faith and confidence in 
the absolute truth, purity and sanctity of God's word; science and 
revelation can never be in conflict for they are both of God. We have" 
just had a declaration from the chief of the scientists, Lord Kelvin, in 
connection with the last great discovery, radium, namely that "Scien- 
tific thought is compelled to accept the idea of creative power." Who 
could have doubted it but the mind obscured by the carnal knowledge 
of the day ? 

What is radium but a metal with a profound mystery attaching to 
it — so great a mystery that its silent energy paralyzes the scientist, 
giving forth a force equal to a speed of 30,000 miles a second and valued 
at $7£*ooo an ounce. 

If xhis be true, and the scientists tell us it is, then what are we to 
think of the spiritual power of God's word and work? If radium be 
the emitter of such a force, from no apparent cause, and with an in- 
herent energy that is inexhaustible, what shall we think of the super- 
natural agency of God's Holy Spirit ? No wonder we see a Saul in his 
intolerant and murderous zeal, in the twinkling of an eye, prostrate on 
the earth and asking, " Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do?" See 
John Bunyan converted from the profane tinker to the author of Pil- 
grim's Progress. See John Newton, the cruel, impious slave trader, 
transformed into the image of his Master and saying : 

" How sweet the name of Jesus sounds 
In a believer's ear." 

The power ot the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son, is a thousand times greater force than all the 
radium of the world, but an unknown quantity to the scientific votary 
with his merely worldly knowledge and ignorance of higher things. 
Let the Church awaken and give its attention to the spiritual radium. 

I have to arraign the Church, that it does not recognize and seek 
in a greater degree the indwelling presence and power of the Holy 
Spirit, and impress it upon the individual believer. 

We recognize Him in the corporate Church as manifested at Pente- 
cost, but as the disciples had to wait for ten days in Jerusalem after the 
ascension, to receive this wondrous gift, so each individual must wait 



20 

and seek this, the last, best, gift of Christ's mission to this earth. 
Baptism does not give it, confirmation does not give it ; the Creed 
says: — "I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church," 
and we pray, " Take not thy Holy Spirit from us ;" but what we need 
to pray for is, that we may be filled with the Holy Spirit, as an 
indwelling presence and power, greater than the power and presence of 
Christ himself when on earth, for this is His promise and His heart's 
desire. 

Too many of us are but nominal Christians, Christians of the 
ante-Pentecostal days, like Peter in Pilate's hall, ready to deny his 
Master, and, like all the disciples, to forsake Him. Oh, for the radio- 
activity of the Holy Spirit without money and without price. Christ 
says : — " Nevertheless I tell you the truth, it is expedient for you that 
I go away, for if I go not away, the comforter will not come unto you, 
but if I go, I will send Him unto you," John xvi., 7. 

" But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you 
from the Father, even the spirit of truth which proceedeth from the 
Father, he shall testify of me," John xv., 26. 

" How be it when He the spirit of truth is come, He will guide 
you into all truth, for He shall not speak of Himself, but whatsoever 
He shall hear, that shall He speak," John xvi., 13. 

' ' Ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence, 
ye shall receive power when the Holy Ghost is come unto you, and ye 
shall be witness unto Me," Acts i., 5, 8. 

" As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of 
God," Romans viii., 13. 

" Know ye not, that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit 
of God dwelleth in you?" I. Cor. iii., 16. 

" If a man love Me, he will keep My words, and My Father will 
love him, and we will come unto Him and make our abode with Him," 
John xiv., 23. 

In Christ's high priestly prayer, xvii. John, 20, 21, he says: — 
" Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe 
on Me through their word, that they all may be one as Thou Father 
art in Me, and I in Thee ; that they also may be one in Us ; that the 
world may believe that Thou hast sent Me. ' ' 

Each believer must have his Pentecost. 

Like the great doctrine of justification by faith, which until the 
Reformation had been lost to the Church for fifteen hundred years, 
and so the great duty of missions to the heathen which by the confes- 
sion of the late Archbishop of Canterbury had also been forgotten by 
the Church of England for a like time, and even to the time of his 
speaking (1897) ; so this great gift of the Holy Spirit, as an indwelling 
presence and power in each believer, has been lost sight of, and not in 
our own branch of the Reform Church alone, but in others. 

May God in His great mercy recall His Church to a sense of the 
power and presence of the Holy Spirit as manifested in the Book of 
Acts, and other portions of the New Testament, and restore Him to 
His apostolic status in His high and holy power as the third person of 
the Blessed Trinity. 



21 



THR OUTLOOK HOPEFUL. 



I have no fear of the decadence of the Church. With our twenty - 
five millions of Sunday School scholars and the two millions of volun- 
tary teachers, and the great work that ib being done among two 
hundred thousand scholars of the universities and colleges, we need 
not have fear for the future Church. True, our own parent Church in 
England is grievously disturbed just now with dissensions, contro- 
versies and conflicts between archbishops and bishops, and bishops and 
clergy, and clergy and laity, and so with the great branch of our 
Church in the adjoining Republic, with its 92 bishops and 4,885 clergy, 
and 758,052 communicants, and so in some of the Colonial Churches, 
yet this is but passing and in God's good time will come to an end, 
with a Church purified, united and strengthened for the Master's ser- 
vice. Christ reigns, and to-day throughout the world His name and 
Church are the operative and controlling forces alike in its civilization, 
expansion, achievement and aspiration. 

MISSIONS. 

The first and great obligation upon the Church to-day is that of 
" Missions." Foreign and Domestic, to fulfil the mission committed to 
it by our Lord and Master Jesus Christ. The needs in this respect are 
very great, and while the Foreign have hitherto been, and still are, 
supreme in magnitude, yet with the wonderful immigration into our 
Northwest Provinces and Territories, the Domestic is now more urgent 
— because they are our own people. As a part of us, they are entitled 
and ought to receive the best we can give them in the municipal, poli- 
tical, social and spiritual way. Giving to either is good ; giving to 
both, better. 

Under the new organization, each baptized member of a parish is 
a member of the Board of Missions, and the good results have been 
seen in the great increase this year in the contributions over all former 
years. 

Our esteemed friend and distinguished co-worker in all branches 
of Church work, and especially in the ecclesiastical courts, Mr. Charles 
Jenkins, says on this subject : — " Canada must be secured for Christ, 
and this work must be done systematically ; the spirit of Christ must 
energize the Church if the work is to succeed. Let us consecrate our- 
selves, our purses and powers to this great cause in cheerful obedience 
to the ascending command, ' Go ye therefore and teach all nations, 
baptize them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost.' " 

The Rev. Hiram Hull, B. A., says : — " We have a great country 
of some 1,200,000 square miles west of Port Arthur, a country also to 
the north of that of unorganized territory of 1,600,000 square miles ; a 
country that is traversed by at least 10,000 miles of navigable water 
suitable for steamboats ; a country that is crossed by thousands of 
miles of railway, where last year several hundreds of miles of railroad 
were built ; a country that has room enough for all the people within 
the Dominion, all the people of the United States, and all the people in 
the British Isles as well, and for all the people of Europe. No wonder 



22 

people are coming to us by the thousands and tens of thousands — 38,- 
000 people came two years ago, 78,000 last year, and already this year 
since 5th January over 80,000 have come to us ; 250,000 of the people 
who are in the country to-day, half of the population are composed of 
thirty-two different nationalities ; 45.000 Americans came in the past 
twelve months. 

" We are face to face with the question that the foreign element 
brings up, and we must settle it as a church — that is, co-operating with 
our sister churches. We have many provinces west of you as large as 
Ontario. 

" We offer these new homes, and the Government does too. The 
Government is responsible to these people for their intellectual attain- 
ment and for their physical welfare. It is not the duty of the Church 
to build schools for these people — that we hold to be the duty of the 
Government ; that encourages them to come, whether they are Eng- 
lish speaking people or other nationalities, but certainly it is the duty 
of the Church to bring Christ to the people, and the ministry of this 
or any other church cannot say, ' This is none of our affair, we are not 
our brother's keeper.' So while the Government builds railroads, 
schools, colleges and universities, the Church must be at the forefront 
with the churches, the preachers, the keeping of the Sabbath day, etc., 
and see that these people have the Gospel which we are appreciating 
so much." 

CHANGE OF NAME OF THE CHURCH AND THE PRAYER BOOK. 

You will recollect that at the last Session of the General Synod 
held in Montreal in September last, there was an important discussion 
whether there should be a new name given to the Church in Canada, 
but by a bare majority of two, the question received the six months' 
hoist, which means an indefinite postponement of the matter. 

There was another discussion upon a motion of Mr. Matthew Wil- 
son, K. C, and a memorial of the Diocese of Huron, upon the issuing 
of a special Canadian Prayer Book, with services adapted to the needs 
of the country. A number of amendments were proposed, but a con- 
ference of those interested in them resulted in the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was passed by a large majority : 

" That it is now convenient and desirable that an edition of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer be printed for use throughout Canada, by the action of a joint 
committee of both houses, and that such prayer book should contain, conveniently 
arranged, all the prayers and forms of service applicable to and authorized for the 
use of church services in Canada, and should be issued with the authority of the 
General Synod and used by the various congregations within its jurisdiction, and 
that the upper house be respectfully requested to take such action as may be 
deemed necessary to prepare a plan for the issue of such Canadian prayer book, 
and that, the upper house concurring, a joint committee of both houses be ap- 
pointed to assist in carrying out the object of this resolution, and to report at the 
next meeting of this Synod." 

We have the honor of claiming my very highly esteemed friend, 
Mr. Wilson, as a member of Christ Church, and we are co-delegates 
from it to the Diocesan Synod, as we have been to the Provincial 
Synod, and he is kind enough to say that I was the first person in 
Synod, as early as 1S84, to propose a change of the Prayer Book in its 



23 

arrangement at least, adapting it to the conditions of the Canadian 
Church. Few, if any, approved the suggestion. It got the cold 
shoulder. Times have changed. Mr. Wilson's views and arguments 
have now prevailed alike in the Diocesan, Provincial and General 
Synods, where, I am happy to say, he is recognized as a power in the 
interests of the Church, and the Church will soon possess a form of 
this venerated and priceless book, that will be acceptable to all — only 
enriched, not despoiled of any of the excellencies and beauties that 
have embedded it in the hearts and minds of the Anglican communion 
throughout the world. 

I have to congratulate you on your beautiful organ, and to find 
that you have given it a memorial character by dedicating it to the 
memory of your first rector. Nothing could be more appropriate than 
the "Pollard Memorial Organ," and I cannot say with how much 
pleasure I listened last Sunday and this to the sweet singing of the 
choir — so full of praise and harmony in this your beautiful little church. 

Here is a list of Wardens from 1821 to the oresent. 



1821 George Jacob and James Little. 

1822 John McGregor and Jos. Hamilton. 

1823 Wm. Elliott and J. W. Little. 

1824 Wm. Hands and J. W. Little. 

1825 James Woods and ]. W. Little. 

1826 Geo. Jacob and Ch. Elliott. 

1827 Geo. Jacob and Robert Wrist. 

1828 Geo. Jacob and Ch. Askin. 

1829 Geo. Jacob and Joseph Woods. 

1830 Geo. Jacob and Ch. Askin. 

183 1 Geo Jacob and James Woods. 

1832 Geo. Jacob and J. L. Williams. 

1833 Geo. Jacob and J. A. Wilkinson. 

1834 Ch. Elliott and John Prince. 

1835 Abraham Unsworth and John Prince. 

1836 Abraham Unsworth and John Prince. 

1837 Abraham Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 

1838 Abraham Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 

1839 Abraham Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 

1840 Abraham Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 

1 84 1 Wm. R. Wood and L. S. Fluett. 

1842 Wm. R. Wood and Thos. Woodbridge. 

1843 Wm. R. Wood and^Thos. Woodbridge. 

1844 Wm. R. Wood and'j. B. Laughton. 

1845 Wm - R- Wood and A. K. Dewson. 

1846 Wm. R. Wood and A. K. Dewson. 

1847 Wm. R. Wood and W. P. Vidal. 

1848 Wm. R. Wood and W. P. Vidal. 

1850 Paul |. Salter and Geo. Bullock. 

185 1 Paul J. Salter and Geo. Bullock. 

1852 Paul J. Sailer and Geo. Bullock. 

1853 Paul f. Salter and Thcs. Woodbridge. 

1854 Paul J. Salter and Thos. Woodbridge. 

1855 Paul J Salter and Thos. Woodbridge. 

1856 Thomas Woodbridge and John Adley. 

1857 Thomas Woodbridge'and John Adley. 

1858 Thomas Woodbridge and John Adley. 

1859 Paul J. Salter and John Adley. 
i860 Paul J. Salter and Joseph Miller. 

1861 Paul J. Salter and J. H. Wilkinson. 

1862 Paul J. Salter and J. H. Wilkinson. 



1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 

1877 
1878 

1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 



[890 



189.S 
1894 

1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



J. Woodbridge and J. H. Wilkinson. 
Thomas Wright and J. H. Wilkinson. 
Cyrus Dobson and J. H. Wilkinson. 
Miles Cowan and Geo. Green. 
A. C. Ellis and Geo. Jessop. 
A. C. Ellis and J H. Wilkinson. 
Gordon McWhinney and A. C. Ellis. 
Gordon McWhinney and A. C. Ellis. 
Gordon McWhinney and A. C. Ellis. 
Gordon McW r hinney and A. C. Ellis. 
J. Goddard and John Wright. 
G. O'C. Leech and F. Marcon. 
G. O'C. Leech and T. Marcon. 
G. O'C. Leech and T. Marcon. 
John Spiers and Arthur Vernor. 
A. C. Vernor and John Spiers. 
T. McWhinney and C. H. Ashdown. 
Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor. 
Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor. 
Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor. 
A, H. Nelson and A. C. Vernor. 
A. H. Nelson and Fred Neal. 
A. W. Phillips and Arthur Manser. 
A. W. Phillips and John Spiers. 
A. W. Phillips and John Spiers. 
G. W. Mason and John Spiers, 
G. W. Mason and John Spiers. 
Jos. Leggett and G. R. M. Pentland. 
Tos. Leggett and G. R. M. Pentland. 
"Fred Neal and G. R. M. Pentland. 
Wm Grey and G. R. M. Pentland. 
N. McWhinney and G.R.M. Pentland. 
N. McWhinney and G. R. M. Pentland. 
David Tasher and G. R. M. Pentland. 
D. T. Carley and G. R. M. Pentland. 
O. Pickard and G. R M. Pentland. 
VV. H. Grey and G. R. M. Pentland. 
W. H. Grey and G. R. M. Pentland. 
Percy Smilev and David Tasher. 
William Hill and David Tasher. 
William Hill and David Tasher. 



24 

It is said that Mr. Jacob whose name heads the list was the builder 
of the second church. He used to sit in the pew in front of ours and 
I see his venerable form before me now quite distinctly. He was per- 
haps the only man in the Western District who had invested means to 
leave to his widow and children. He owned the fine colonial house 
that Mr. Richard Pattinson had erected and which Mr. Prince bought 
on his coming here. He was a Captain of the militia and a Justice 
of the Peace. E[e left a large family and Mr. A. H. Askin, of Stra- 
bane, is one of his grandchildren. Mr. Hands, who is next on the 
list was a most worthy person and the holder of more offices than any 
other person in the district. He was at different times Judge of 
Surrogate, Sheriff, Clerk of the Peace, Treasurer of the District, 
Registrar of Essex and Kent, Registrar of the Surrogate Court, Col- 
lector of Customs and Postmaster. He died in 1833 holding several 
of these offices and was a competent and faithful public servant and I 
find that he was one of my god fathers which I never knew before. 

And, now, heavenly Father, we ask Thy blessing upon our bishops 
and curates and all congregations committed to their charge, and on 
all the churches of thy saints throughout the world. Give to our civil 
rulers a due sense of their responsibility to Thee. Make them faithful 
to every trust committed to them by Thy providence. And to all Thy 
people give Thy heavenly grace, that they may forsake their sins and 
subdue their passions, and restrain the violence of party strife and 
animosity, and so dwell together in this life, that in the world to come 
they may have life everlasting. 

And, now, recalling the words of the aged Simeon, I could rever- 
ently say, " Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, 
according to Thy word, for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which 
Thou hast prepared before all people. To be a light to lighten the 
Gentiles and to be the glory of Thy people Israel."